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Chapter 28
Chemistry of the Living State

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p 1135-3
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This animation illustrates some properties of proteins amino acids.
Notes
Proteins and amino acids. The primary structure of a protein is its sequence of amino acids. The secondary structure of a protein is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl oxygens and the amide hydrogens of peptide groups. Free amino acids exist in their ionized forms in neutral solution. All amino acids except glycine have 4 different groups around the alpha carbon making them optically active. Only L amino acids are found in proteins.
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p 1135-3
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The concept of chirality is illustrated in this animation.
Notes
A chiral object is not superimposable on its mirror image. A carbon atom with four different groups is chiral so it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Two chiral isomers are called enantiomers and are designated as either the R or the S isomer. Enantiomers have similar physical properties but behave differently in chiral environments. Many molecules have more than one chiral carbon atom.
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movie
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The various types of isomerism are demonstrated in this animation.
Notes
Isomers are compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas. Configurational (structural) isomers differ in the locations of bonds or groups in the molecule. Stereoisomers have the same groups of atoms bonded to each other but differ in the spatial arrangements of the atoms. Geometrical (cis-trans) isomers and optical isomers are stereoisomers.
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Title
movie
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Animation showing the design and operation of a polarimeter.
Notes
Nonpolarized light has its electric vectors vibrating in all planes. A polarizer allows only light vibrating in a single plane to pass through it. An analyzer is used to determine if the polarized light has been rotated. An achiral solution has no effect on the plane of polarization of the light. A solution containing an excess of one enantiomer of a chiral substance causes rotation of the plane of polarization of the light.
28.1
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28-1
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Elements in living matter
28.2
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28-2
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cellular organization
28.3
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28-3
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optical isomeers of glyceraldehyde
28.4
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28-4
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view through the analyzer prism of a polarimeter
28.5
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28-5
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The structure of D-(-)-erythrose
28.6
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28-6
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Representation of ring closure in glucose molecule
28.7
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28-7
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alpha and beta forms of D glucose
28.8
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28-8
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some common disaccharides
28.9
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28-9
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Two common polysaccharides
28.2
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28-2
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Experimental determination of amino acid sequence
28.11
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28-11
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Amino acid sequence in beef insulin
28.12
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28-12
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Secondary structure of a protein-an helix
28.13
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28-13
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Pleated-sheet model of beta-keratin
28.14
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28-14
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Linkages contributing to the tertiary sturcture of proteins
28.15
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28-15
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Representation of the tertiary structure of myglobin
28.16
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28-16
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The four levels of protein structure
28.17
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28-17
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metabolism outline
28.18
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28-18
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Converstion of ADP to ATP
28.19
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28-19
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Sucrase binding a scrose molecule
28.20
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28-20
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Change in enzyme conformation after binding of substrate
28.21
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28-21
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Completion of the enzyme-catzlyzed reaction
28.22
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28-22
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structure of carboxypeptidase
28.23
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28-23
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Binding of protein to the active site of carboxypeptidase
28.24
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28-24
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Constituents of nucleic acids
28.25
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28-25
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A protion of a nucleic acid chain
28.26
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28-26
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DNA model
28.27
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28-27
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Replciation of a DNA molecule
28.28
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28-28
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Protein synthesis
p 1124-1
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p 1124-1
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Glyerol and fatty acid
p 1124-1a
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p 1124-1a
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Glycerol tripalmitate, glycerol tiroleate and glycerol lauropalmitostearate
p 1125-1
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p 1125-1
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Tristerarin, glycerol and potassium stearate
p 1125-1a
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p 1125-1a
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3-hydrocy-2-butanone and diacetly
p 1126-1
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p 1126-1
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olestra and triglyceride
p 1126-1a
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p 1126-1a
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corn oil photo
p 1127-1
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p 1127-1
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phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine
p 1127-1a
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p 1127-1a
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a cell membrane
p 1127-1b
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p 1127-1b
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glocose and fructose
p 1129-1
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p 1129-1
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Ficher projections
p 1130-1
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p 1130-1
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S and R L and D glyceraldehyde
p 1130-1a
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p 1130-1a
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D and L Erythrose and threose
p 1130-1b
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p 1130-1b
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D erythrose and Threose
p 1130-1c
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photo of Emil Fischer
p 1133-1
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p 1133-1
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cellobiose
p 1135-1a
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p 1135-1a
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an L-amino acid
p 1136-1
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p 1136-1
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Acid to basic solution
p 1137-1
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p 1137-1
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peptide bond formation
p 1137-1a
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p 1137-1a
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naming a polypeptide
p 1142-1
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p 1142-1
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missing no name
p 1144-1
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1144-1
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The structure of glyceralde-hyde-3-phosphate
p 1144-1a
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p 1144-1a
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ADP/ATP conversion
p 1145-1
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p 1145-1
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Hydrolysis of sucrose
p 1147-1
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p 1147-1
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peptide linkage being broken
p 1152-1
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p 1152-1
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the genetic code
p 1154-1a
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p 1154-1a
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Structure of L-threonine
p 1154-1b
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p 1154-1b
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problem 1
p 1154-1b
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p 1154-1b
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problem 2
p 1155-1a
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p 1155-1a
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problem 4
p 1155-1b
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p 1155-1b
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problem 5
p 1156-1
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p 1156-1
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problem 23
P 1157-1a
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P 1157-1a
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problem 31
P 1157-1b
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P 1157-1b
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problem 32
P 1157-1c
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P 1157-1c
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problem 33
P 1157-1d
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P 1157-1d
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problem 34
p 1159-1
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p 1159-1
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problem 60
p 1160-1
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p 1160-1
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problem 71
Table 28.1
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Table 28.1
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Some common fatty acids
Table 28.2
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Table 28.2
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some common fats and oils
Table 28.3
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Table 28.3
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Some common amino acids

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