Chapter 1: The Media of Mass Communication
advertisement: A message intended to persuade people to buy a product or service. Advertisers buy space or time in various media for these messages.
advertising: The activity involved in producing advertisements. The word "advertisement" is for a specific message.
alternate media:Emerging, narrowly focused advertising vehicles. These include direct mail and place-based television.
amplification: Spreading message.
basic model: Shows sender, encoding, transmission, decoding, receiver.
book: One-time, bound publication of enduring value on single topic.
channel noise: Interference during transmission.
chemical media: Movies are a chemical medium because their technological basis is photographic chemistry. Experts expect a switch to digital technology in the years ahead.
circulation: The number of buyers or readers of a print product. The word is also used loosely to describe the audience size of electronic media. A correlation exists between circulation and advertising revenue: the greater the circulation, the greater the revenue. Circulation is also a source of revenue for media products that people buy. For books and movies, circulation is the major revenue source. It is a lesser source for magazines, newspapers, radio and television.
communication: Exchange of ideas and information.
concentric circle model: Sender at centre; recipient, effects at outer edge.
conglomeration: Combining of companies into larger companies.
cool media: Theorist Marshall McLuhan's term for mass media that can be used with minimal audience participation. Television is an example.
demassification: When media focus on narrower audience segments. The traditional idea of a "mass" audience is segmented.
decoding: Translating a symbolic message.
effect: Result of mass communication.
electronic media: Records, radio, television and the World Wide Web, whose messages are stored electronically for transmission and retrieval.
elitism: Media which emphasize their responsibility to society. At the opposite extreme is populism, which emphasizes audience size and profit.
encoding: Putting something into symbols.
environmental noise: Interference at reception site.
feedback: Recipient response to sender.
filters: Receiver factors that impede communication.
gatekeepers:Media people who influence messages en route.
gatekeeper-regulator hybrids: Media trade, professional groups.
globalization: International media ownership.
group communication: More than two people, in person.
hot media: Theorist Marshall McLuhan saw print media as hot because they require intimate audience involvement.
informational filter Receiver's knowledge limits impede deciphering of symbols.
infotainment: Melding of media role as purveyor of information and entertainment.
internalization: Making sense of a decoded message.
interpersonal communication:Usually two people face to face.
intrapersonal communication: Talking to oneself.
legals: Advertising that government requires be placed in the media. Legals include government agendas, minutes and budgets and look like classified advertisements.
magazine: Ongoing bound publication of continuing value with diverse topics.
mass audiences: Recipients of mass messages.
mass communication: Many recipients; not face to face; a process.
mass communicators: Message crafters.
mass media: Vehicles that carry messages.
mass messages: What is communicated.
melding: Conversion of all media to a common digital technology.
narrative model: Describes process in words, not schematic.
news: Nonfiction reports on what people want or need to know.
newspapers: Unbound publication, generally weekly or daily, with diverse, timely content.
noise:Impedes communication before message reaches receiver.
physical filter: Receiver's alertness impedes deciphering.
populism: Applauds media that attract large following. Antithesis of elitism, which puts quality and responsibility ahead of mass popularity.
pressure groups: Try to influence media messages, policies; includes citizen groups, government agencies.
print media: Books, magazines, newspapers.
psychological filter:Receiver's state of mind impedes deciphering.
public relations: This is an activity that produces messages usually transmitted via the mass media to win support. Includes news releases, corporate communication programs.
regulators:Non-media people who influence messages.
semantic noise: Sloppy message-crafting.
stimulation: Stirs someone to communicate.
transmission: Sending a message.
Thomas Bohn: Devised concentric circle model, with Ray Hiebert, Donald Ungurait.
Ray Hiebert: Devised concentric circle model, with Donald Ungurait, Thomas Bohn.
Harold Lasswell: Devised narrative model.
Marshall McLuhan: Media theorist who developed the catchy phrase: "The medium is the message." Also dealt with the global village and the tyranny of information tools.
Claude Shannon: Devised basic communication model, with Warren Weaver.
Donald Ungurait: Devised concentric circle model, with Ray Hiebert, Thomas Bohn.
Warren Weaver: Devised basic communication model, with Claude Shannon.
Bertelsmann: German media giant with strong U.S. book and recording interests.
Hachette Filipacchi: French-Italian media giant with strong U.S. magazine interests.
News Corp: Australian company owned by Rupert Murdoch. Properties include television, movies, HarperCollins and newspapers.
Time Warner: U.S. media giant whose interests include magazines, movies, recordings, cable television and books.
Viacom: Media conglomerate in movies, books and television.
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