Chapter 5: Art of Ancient Greece
Image Links



Chapter 5

Art Of Ancient Greece

  A. THE EMERGENCE OF GREEK CIVILIZATION
    1. A Brief History
    2. Religious Beliefs and Sacred Places
    3. Historical Divisions of Greek Art

  B. THE GEOMETRIC PERIOD
    1. Ceramic Decoration
    2. Metal Sculpture
    3. The First Greek Temples

  C. THE ORIENTALIZING PERIOD

  D. THE ARCHAIC PERIOD
    1. Temple Architecture
    2. Architectural Sculpture
    3. Freestanding Sculpture
    4. Vase Painting

  E. THE TRANSITIONAL OR EARLY CLASSICAL PERIOD
    1. Architectural Sculpture
    2. Freestanding Sculpture
    3. Vase Painting

  F. THE FIFTH CENTURY CLASSICAL PERIOD
    1. The Athenian Agora
    2. The Acropolis
    3. The Parthenon
    4. Sculpture and The Canon Of Polykleitos
    5. Stele Sculpture
    6. Painting

  G. CLASSICAL ART OF THE FOURTH CENTURY
    1. Architecture and Architectural Sculpture
    2. Sculpture
    3. Wall Painting and Mosaics
    4. The Art of the Goldsmith

  H. THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD
    1. Theaters
    2. The Corinthian Order in Architecture
    3. Sculpture


Art Of Ancient Greece

  A. THE EMERGENCE OF GREEK CIVILIZATION   top

A Boetian Hydria from the sub-mycenaean or "proto-geometric period" c. 900 BCE.

    1. A Brief History   top

    2. Religious Beliefs and Sacred Places   top

Fig. 5-2
Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece

The Olympians is a beautiful site about Greek mythologies

Extraordinary photographs of Delphi and the Temple of Apollo

    3. Historical Divisions of Greek Art   top

  B. THE GEOMETRIC PERIOD   top

Information about the Geometric Period, c. 900-700 BCE., with an image of a gold Attic Horse Pyxis

    1. Ceramic Decoration   top

Fig. 5-4
Centaur, from Lefkandi, Euboea. Late 10th century BCE. Terra-cotta, height 14 1/8" (36 cm). Archaeological Museum, Eretria

Fig. 5-5
Funerary vase, from the Dipylon Cemetery, Athens. c. 750 BCE. Terra-cotta, height 42 5/8" (108 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Vase from Dipylon, detail

Cinerary Amphora, the early Geometric Period, 860-840 BCE., is from The Archaeological Museum of Kerameikos

Corinthian Ceramics

    2. Metal Sculpture   top

Fig. 5-6
Man and Centaur, perhaps from Olympia. c. 750 BCE. Bronze, height 4 5/16" (11.1 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

    3. The First Greek Temples   top

  C. The Orientalizing Period   top

Early Corinthian Alabastrion, c. 620-590 BCE. by the "Scale Painter"

  D. The Archaic Period   top

Athena, from the Peisistratid Temple to Athena on the Acropolis, c.520 BCE.

Archaic marble grave stele, c.560 BCE.

    1. Temple Architecture   top

Fig. 5-9
Temple of Hera I, Paestum, Italy. c. 550 BCE

Images and information about the temples at Paestum, from Great Buildings On-Line

Plan of Temple of Hera

    2. Architectural Sculpture   top

Fig. 5-12
Gorgon Medusa, detail of sculpture from the west pediment of the Temple of Artemis, Korkyra. c. 580 BCE. Limestone, height of pediment at the center 9'2" (2.79 m). Archaeological Museum, Korkyra (Corfu)

A frieze fragment from the Treasury of Siphnians

Fig. 5-13
Reconstruction of the Siphnian Treasury using fragments found in the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi. c. 530–525 BCE. Marble

Fig. 5-14
Battle between the Gods and Giants, fragments of the north frieze of the Treasury of the Siphnians, from the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi. c. 530 - 525 BCE. Marble, height 26" (66 cm). Archaeological Museum, Delphi

Fig. 5-16
Dying Warrior, sculpture from the left corner of the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. c. 480 BCE. Marble, length 6' (1.83 m). Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, Munich

    3. Freestanding Sculpture   top

This site shows a detail of the face of Kroisos; also see a detail of the face of the Peplos Kore

Fig. 5-17
New York Kouros from Attica. c. 580 BCE. Marble, height 6'4" (1.93 m). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Fig. 5-18
Anavysos Kouros, perhaps young Kroisos, from a cemetery at Anavysos, near Athens. c. 525 BCE. Marble with remnants of paint, height 6'4" (1.93 m). National Archaeological Museum, Athens

Fig. 5-19
Berlin Kore, from a cemetery at Keratea, near Athens. 570 - 560 BCE. Marble with remnants of red paint, height 6'3" (1.9 m). Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Antikensammlung, Altes Museum, Berlin-Mitte

Fig. 5-20
Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens. c. 530 BCE. Marble, height 48" (123 cm). Acropolis Museum, Athens

Fig. 5-21
Kore, from Chios, c. 520 BCE. Marble, height 217/8" (56.6 cm). Acropolis Museum, Athens

Fig. 5-22
Calf Bearer (Moschophoros) from the Acropolis, Athens. c. 560 BCE. Marble, height 5'5" (1.65 m). Acropolis Museum, Athens

    4. Vase Painting   top

Fig. 5-24
Ergotimos (potter) and Kleitias (painter). Francois Vase, c. 570 BCE. Black-figure decoration on a volute krater. Ceramic, height of volute krater 26" (66 cm). Museo Archeològico Nazionale, Florence

Fig. 5-25
Amasis Painter, Dionysos with Maenads, c. 540 BCE. Black-figure decoration on an amphora. Ceramic, height of amphora 13" (33.3 cm). Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

Fig. 5-26
Exekias. The Suicide of Ajax, c. 540 BCE. Black-figure decoration on an amphora. Ceramic, height of amphora 27" (69 cm). Château-Musée, Boulogne-sur-Mer, France

Fig. 5-27
"A.D." Painter. Women at a Fountain House. 520 - 510 BCE. Black-figure decoration on a hydria. Ceramic, height of hydria 20 7/8" (53 cm). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Fig. 5-28
Euphronios (painter) and Euxitheos (potter). Death of Sarpedon c. 515 BCE. Red-figure decoration on a calyx krater. Ceramic, height of krater 18" (45.7 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

  E. THE TRANSITIONAL OR EARLY CLASSICAL PERIOD   top

Girl With Doves, a marble relief sculpture from 450-440 BCE.

    1. Architectural Sculpture   top

Fig. 5-31
Apollo with Battling Lapiths and Centaurs fragments of sculpture from the west pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia. c. 460 BCE. Marble, height of Apollo 10'2" (3.1 m). Archaeological Museum, Olympia

Fig. 5-32
Athena, Herakles, and Atlas, metope relief from the frieze of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia. c. 460 BCE. Marble, height 5'3" (1.59 m). Archaeological Museum, Olympia

Ilissos Temple frieze from the Staatliche Museum, Berlin

    2. Freestanding Sculpture   top

Fig. 5-33

Kritian Boy from Acropolis, Athens. c. 480 BCE. Marble, height 46" (116 cm). Acropolis Museum, Athens

Fig. 5-34
Charioteer, from the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi. c. 477 BCE. Bronze, height 5'11" (1.8 m). Archaeological Museum, Delphi

Fig. 5-35
Warrior A, found in the sea off Riace, Italy. c. 460 - 450 BCE. Bronze with bone and glass eyes, silver teeth, and copper lips and nipples, height 6'8" (2.03 m). Museo Archeològico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria, Italy

This may be a statue of Paris, attributed to Euphranos


    3. Vase Painting   top

A large image of an Attic Red Figure Stamnos, c. 490 BCE., by the Kleophrades painter; the vase painting shows Heracles Fighting the Nemean Lion; also see the Attic Black Figure Amphora, c. 530-520 BCE., in the manner of the Lysippides painter, showing Heracles Fighting Two Amazons

Fig. 5-36
Pan Painter. Artemis Slaying Actaeon. c. 470 BCE. Red-figure decoration on a bell krater. Ceramic, height of krater 14 5/8" (37 cm). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston James Fund and by Special Contribution

  F. THE FIFTH CENTURY CLASSICAL PERIOD   top

Visit the Acropolis Museum in Greece; the Museum houses the most important works of the Greek civilization

    1. The Athenian Agora   top

Fig. 5-37
Plan of the Agora (marketplace), Athens, c. 400 BCE

    2. The Acropolis   top

The Acropolis, the "sacred rock of Athens"--its use as a sanctuary of Athena, and its excavations over the years; scroll down to view the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, the Temple of Athena Nike, and the Propylaea. All images can be enlarged and all are very current photographs.

Fig. 5-38
Model of the Acropolis, Athens, c. 400 BCE

    3. The Parthenon   top

The Parthenon

Fig. 5-42
Photographic mock-up of the east pediment of the Parthenon c. 438 - 432 BCE.

Fig. 5-43
Lapith Fighting a Centaur, metope relief from the Doric frieze on the south side of the Parthenon. c. 440s BCE. Marble, height 56" (1.42 m). The British Museum, London

Fig. 5-45
Horsemen, detail of the Procession, from the Ionic frieze on the north side of the Parthenon. c. 438 - 432 BCE. Marble, height 41 3/4" (106 cm). The British Museum, London

Fig. 5-46
Marshals and Young Women, detail of the Procession, from the Ionic frieze on the east side of the Parthenon. c. 438 - 432 BCE. Marble, height 43" (109 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris

Enlarged detail of two caryatids from the Porch of the Maidens of The Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens

Fig. 5-47
Mnesikles. Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens. 430s–405 BCE. View of north porch

Fig. 5-48
Porch of the Maidens (Caryatid Porch), Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens. 421 - 405 BCE

Fig. 5-49
Kallikrates. Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens. c. 425 BCE

Fig. 5-50
Nike (Victory) Adjusting Her Sandal fragment of relief decoration from the parapet (now destroyed), Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens. Last quarter of the 5th century BCE. Marble, height 42" (107 cm). Acropolis Museum, Athens

    6. Sculpture and The Canon Of Polykleitos   top

Wounded Amazon--after a copy of the original by Polykleitos, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fig. 5-51
Polykleitos. Spear Bearer (Doryphoros), Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 450–440 BCE. Marble, height 6'6" (2 m); tree trunk and brace strut are Roman additions. Museo Archeològico Nazionale, Naples

    7. Stele Sculpture   top

Fig. 5-52
Grave Stele of Hegeso. c. 410 - 400 BCE. Marble, height 5'9" (1.5 m). National Archaeological Museum, Athens

Demeter, Persephone, Triptolemos, stela from Eleusis

Little Girl with Birds, grave stela from Paros

Funerary stele for an Athenian woman, 5th century BCE.

    8. Painting   top

Attic Red Figure Kylix, by the painter of Philadelphia, c. 480-470 BCE., and the potter Hieron Chiusi

Fig. 5-53
Style of Achilles Painter. Woman and Maid. c. 450 - 440 BCE. White-ground and black-figure decoration on a lekythos. Ceramic, with additional painting in tempera, height of lekythos 15 1/8" (38.4 cm). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

  G. CLASSICAL ART OF THE FOURTH CENTURY   top

A marvelous statue of Hermes from the Vatican Museum


    1. Architecture and Architectural Sculpture   top

Fig. 5-55
Tholos, Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, Delphi. c. 400 BCE

Fig. 5-56
Plan and section of the Tholos, Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, Delphi

Fig. 5-57
Reconstruction drawing of the Mausoleum (tomb of Mausolos), Halikarnassos (modern Bodrum, Turkey). c. 353 BCE

Fig. 5-58
Mausolos(?), from the Mausoleum (tomb of Mausolos), Halikarnassos. Marble, height 9'10" (3 m). The British Museum, London

Fig. 5-59
Panel from the Amazon frieze, south side of the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos

    2. Sculpture   top

Fig. 5-60
Praxiteles or his followers. Hermes and the Infant Dionysos, probably a Hellenistic or Roman copy after a 4th-century BCE original. Marble, with remnants of red paint on the lips and hair, height 7'1" (2.16 m). Archaeological Museum, Olympia

Fig. 5-61
Praxiteles. Aphrodite of Knidos composite of two similar Roman copies after the original marble of c. 350 BCE. Marble, height 6'8" (2.03 m). Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino, Gabinetto delle Maschere, Rome

Fig. 5-62
Lysippos. The Scraper (Apoxyomenos), Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 330 BCE. Marble, height 6'9" (2.06 m). Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino, Gabinetto dell'Apoxyomenos, Rome

The Scraper, Lysippos

Fig. 5-63
Works by Lysippos, including Alexander the Great, head from a Hellenistic copy (c. 200 BCE) of a statue, possibly after a 4th-century BCE original by Lysippos. Marble fragment, height 16 1/8" (41 cm). Archaeological Museum, Istanbul, Turkey

Fig. 5-64
Alexander the Great, 4 drachma coin issued by Lysimachos of Thrace. 306 -281 BCE. Silver, diameter 1 1/8" (30 mm). The British Museum, London


    3. Wall Painting and Mosaics   top

A visit to Vergina-Aigai, site of the tombs of the parents of Alexander the Great; scroll down to see the wall painting, and click on the image to see some fine details of the "Abduction of Persephone"

Fig. 5-66
Abduction of Persephone, detail of a wall painting in Tomb I (Small Tomb), Vergina, Macedonia. c. 366 BCE. Height approx. 39 1/2" (100.3 cm)

Fig. 5-67
Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos from Pompeii. Roman mosaic copy after a Greek painting of c. 310 BCE, perhaps by Philoxenos or Helen of Egypt. Museo Archeològico Nazionale, Naples

Fig. 5-68
Gnosis. Stag Hunt, mosaic floor decoration from Pella, Macedonia. 300 BCE. Pebbles, height 10'2" (3.1 m). Archaeological Museum, Pella.

    4. The Art of the Goldsmith   top

"Greek Jewelry: 5000 Years of Tradition" is a spectacular show of the goldsmith's art

Fig. 5-70
Pectoral, from the tomb of a Scythian at Ordzhonikidzel, Russia. 4th century BCE. Gold, diameter 12" (30.6 cm). Historical Museum, Kiev

Ganymede jewelry

  H. THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD   top

A Hellenistic statue of Sophocles from the Vatican Museum

    1. Theaters   top

Fig. 5-71
Theater, Epidauros. Early 3rd century BCE and later

Images of the Theater, Epidauros

Fig. 5-72
Plan of the theater at Epidauros


    2. The Corinthian Order in Architecture   top

Fig. 5-73
Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Athens. Building and rebuilding phases: foundation mid-6th century BCE; temple designed by Cossutius, begun 175 BCE, left unfinished 164 BCE, completed 132 CE using Cossutius' design

    3. Sculpture   top

Marble Funerary Stele, 1st century BCE. ("a classical alternative")

Fig. 5-74
Gallic Chieftain Killing His Wife and Himself. Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 220 BCE. Marble, height 6'11" (2.1 m). Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome

Fig. 5-75
Epigonos(?). Dying Gaulic Trumpeter. Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 220 BCE. Marble, lifesize. Museo Capitolino, Rome

Funerary monument showing the dying Adonis

Fig. 5-77
Reconstructed west front of the altar from Pergamon. c. 166 - 156 BCE. Marble. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Antikensammlung, Pergamonmuseum

Fig. 5-78
Athena Attacking the Giants, detail of the frieze from the east front of the altar from Pergamon. Marble, frieze height 7'6" (2.3 m). Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Antikensammlung, Pergamonmuseum

Fig. 5-79
Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athanadoros of Rhodes. Laocoön and His Sons perhaps the original of the 2nd or 1st century BCE or a Roman copy of the 1st century CE. Marble, height 8' (2.44 m). Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino, Cortile Ottagono, Rome

Fig. 5-80
Nike of Samothrace from the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothrace. c. 190 BCE (?). Marble, height 8' (2.44 m). Musée du Louvre, Paris

Fig.5-81
Veiled and Masked Dancer Late 3rd or 2nd century BCE. Bronze, height 8 1/8" (20.7 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Bequest of Walter C. Baker, 1971 (1972.118.95)

Fig. 5-82
Old Woman 2nd century BCE. Marble, height 49 1/2" (125.7 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Rogers Fund, 1909 (09.39)

Spinario from the Museo Conservatori in Rome


This marble statuette of Aphrodite, c.150-100 BCE., is from Benghazi in eastern Libya; Aphrodite is seen rising from the sea.

The "Harpies" present an unusual view of the famous Venus de Milo or Aphrodite of Melos

Fig. 5-83
Aphrodite of Melos (also called Venus de Milo). c. 150 BCE. Marble, height 6'10" (2.1 m). Musée du Louvre, Paris

Fig. 5-84
Hellenistic Ruler c. 150 - 140 BCE. Bronze, height 7'9" (2.37 m). Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome

top


© 1995-2002 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
A Pearson Company
Legal Notice