Figure 9-4

Abraham Maslow suggested that the various motives–learned and unlearned, social and primary drives–can be arranged in a hierarchy. The lower motives spring from bodily needs that must be satisfied for survival; the higher motives, such as the striving to belong or to achieve self-esteem, do not emerge until the more basic motives have largely been satisfied. Recent research challenges this view by indicating that in some societies difficulty in meeting lower needs can actually foster the satisfaction of higher needs.