Chapter 2: The Biological Basis of Behavior
Chapter Review


NEURONS, THE MESSENGERS

This module presents the basic biological processes that are at the root of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. The body possesses two systems for coordinating and integrating behavior: the nervous system and the endocrine system.

The billions of neurons, or nerve cells, that underlie all the activity of the nervous system form a communication network that coordinates all the systems of the body and enables them to function. Neurons usually receive messages from other neurons through short fibers, called dendrites, that pick up messages and carry them to the neuron's cell body. The axon carries outgoing messages from the cell. A group of axons bundled together makes up a nerve. Some axons are covered with a myelin sheath, made up of glial cells. The myelin sheath increases neuron efficiency and provides insulation.


A typical myelinated neuron.



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