Chapter 26: The Urinary System
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The elimination of organic waste products, especially nitrogen-containing wastes such as is a function of the urinary system.


The renal blood vessels and ureter are attached to the kidney at a prominent medial indentation known as the .


The layer of collagen fibers, the , covers the outer surface of the entire organ.


Each renal pyramid has its base facing the cortex while the tip or apex, called the , projects into the internal cavity of the renal sinus.


About 85% of nephrons are cortical nephrons while the remaining 15%, termed , extend deep into the renal pyramids of the medulla.


A includes the glomerulus and the expanded initial segment of the renal tubule, a region called the Bowman's capsule.


The functions in the absorption of virtually all of the organic nutrients and plasma proteins and 60% of the sodium and chloride ions and water.


About 20--25% of the total cardiac output flows into the kidneys through the .


The interlobar arteries supply the that arch along the boundary between cortex and medulla and which give rise to the interlobular arteries.


The kidneys and ureters are innervated by , which enter the kidney at the hilus and follow the tributaries of the renal vessels to reach the individual nephrons.


The pair of muscular tubes that extend from the kidneys to the urinary bladder are .


The mucosal lining of the urinary bladder is usually thrown into folds called .


The structure that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the exterior of the body is the .


The process of urination is coordinated by the .


An age-related change in the urinary system is the loss of muscle tone in the urethral sphincters, which leads to problems with .


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